40 years of Apple in just some minutes

April 1, 1976 is the anniversary of the Big Apple after 40 years of success .Today we will come back with your memoirs the last 40 years .

1971-1977: the meeting of two Steve and success of the spirit startups

One can say, in many ways, the Apple adventure really began in 1971 with the meeting of Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.Introduced to each other by a mutual friend, Bill Fernandez, the two men were quick to become friends and partners. In 1972, together they market a device designed by Wozniak that allows free calls through the lines of the AT & T (Blue Box). This can in no way become a mass product, but 200 copies are still taker. - Which is not bad in light of the relatively high price of $ 150 in 1973, the two thieves trying so concomitant to find the job of their dreams. Wozniak, meanwhile, joined HP (then commonly Hewlett-Packard), where he however fails to integrate the computer division. Jobs, meanwhile, manages to get hired at Atari despite his interrupted studies after one semester. Thus both accumulate valuable experience in the sphere fledgling high-tech .An experience that pushes, in 1975, became interested in the design of computers. Unfortunately, the two main processors in the market are too expensive to get started ... This is not the case of the MOS Technology 6502, sold for $ 20 and Wozniak discovered upon its release in September 1975. Soon, the man feels the ground ... and eventually embark on designing a machine built around the chip. In March 1976, the computer is developed. In the eyes of Steve Jobs, it is obvious that such a device has real commercial potential. However, neither HP nor Atari do not want to hear about it. The ambitious young man (21 years) thus convinces his partner a little older (25 years) to found an independent company. To this end, they sell some personal belongings and "recruit" Ronald Wayne, a colleague and friend of Steve Jobs, in order to avoid deadlocks in case of disagreement decision.This is Steve Jobs chose the name Apple. To date, no one can claim to know why for sure, although the most common explanation is a desire to appear before Atari in the phone book.

Apple color Apple logo
Apple first logo
The first Apple logo, designed by Ronald Wayne, is not remarkable for its simplicity ...

... That's why it will be replaced in 1977 by the most famous apples.

Very quickly, the three men are able to produce their computers at a reasonable rate, but the problem is of course to find customers. Jobs recalls Paul Terrell, who holds one of the few the days of computer stores, the Byte Shop, was impressed at an early demonstration of the device. So he knocks on his door hoping to sell its printed circuit to tens of dollars apiece. But Terrell launches against-offers. It will take 50 units if the computers are fully assembled - to $ 500 item, or $ 25,000 in total For Jobs, the offer can not refuse, even if it is very far to have the resources for such production. So it makes contact with Cramer Electronics in order to control all the necessary parts and, when paying ($ 15,000), is content to evoke the command of Paul Terrell. After verification, the merchant agrees to let him go with his plays, but imposes a 30-day closed period for pay. This bet is absolutely not taste of Ronald Wayne, who, as the main target of any creditors (42 years, a car, a job at Atari, etc.), prefers to withdraw on 12 April 1976. The man sells its shares - 10% of Apple - the next day in exchange for $ 800. 

Apple I 1976
The Apple I is not an industrial product. It is usually dressed in a wooden frame ...

For their part, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak are working day and night, allowing them to deliver the promised 50 machines within the time limit. The first copies are also on sale this April, and costs $ 666.66 (more than € 2,000 today). This is the beginning of a success. Despite the very low computer penetration, demand warrants assemble 200 units in one year. And in 1977, all jostling - Apple is Apple Computer, Inc., Mike Markkula injects $ 92,000 and co-sign a loan of $ 250,000 to move into high gear, the company is organized around the new CEO Michael Scott .... Not to mention the most important: Steve Wozniak completes Apple II, whose design is heavily influenced by Jobs.

1977-1985: cardboard to failure

The Apple II was a success. Taking the foundation laid by the Apple I, it blew all the petty limitations due to lack of resources early days. It takes the form of an all-in-one cared, drape a plastic shell - modern looking, for the time - and ready to use right out of the box. Unsurprisingly, he met a lot of enthusiasm from the first enthusiastic computer. He even manages to seduce some software vendors. In 1979, it hosts also the first digital spreadsheet, called VisiCalc. The latter, which closely follows the "Plus" version of the Apple II, is the entry ticket to the young firm for the world of business: sales are experiencing a boomunprecedented.

Apple II
The Apple II with two floppy drives (which succeeded the storage on tape).

Riding on this wave, the decision is made ​​to go public entity Apple Inc. Meanwhile, the release of the Apple III was a failure because of the very big problems heating inherent in fanless design imposed by Steve Jobs. But never mind, the stock market sees that Apple's revenue curve. She instantly gratifies the company an impressive recovery familiarly 1.8 billion. All shares for sale, however, have not been placed on the market. Jobs mobilized for the equivalent of one million dollars. What purpose ? Xerox to negotiate with the right to take a look at the  Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (Xerox PARC), where the company develops its projects high-tech advanced. Two visits are enough for him to make great ideas: Quickly, he and his team bring substantial changes (mouse!) To two families of computers then Apple has in its cartons, namely the Lisa and Macintosh future. but, contrary to appearances, Steve Jobs does not do what he wants. Shortly before being replaced by Mike Markkula, Michael Scott removes the Lisa project at the iconic co-founder of the firm. The latter is launching in an appropriation of the other major project campaign (Macintosh). Meanwhile, the leadership indulges in a certain condescension towards competition she could dominate so quickly. While IBM launches its IBM PC, in 1981, it offers a broad advertising campaign ... to welcome this new entrant on the market. A boost not only superfluous but, retrospectively , had to leave a bitter taste for more. 

Apple Welcome IBM seriously

Yes, because in the early 1980s, Apple simply can not replace the Apple II. Lisa (1983), although promising, leaves the audience with a cautious mind-blowing price of $ 9,995, while it was not until 1984 and the Macintosh, launched to great fanfare - including the famous spot of the Super Bowl  - to end the painful reign of the Apple III. Meanwhile, the computer business IBM has become twice as big as Apple. Worse, some Microsoft, which has the hands-on in designing the user interface of the Macintosh, is about to deliver Windows on all derivatives of the IBM PC , usually less expensive than new Apple computer ($ 2 499). Clearly, the fun is over.

Lisa 2 Macintosh IBM PC
From left to right: a Lisa 2, released simultaneously with the Macintosh first name, center, and an IBM PC, which led them very hard life.

In 1985, management exploding. While CEO John Sculley was recruited two years ago by Steve Jobs, he took a stand against it and its Macintosh program, which it accuses of not being able to stand up to competition from IBM. He advocates a major sweep and a return to enthusiasts through a machine open near the Apple II. Jobs, for his part, opposed this policy and firmly defends a closed ecosystem logic. Sculley ends the dispute by making him remove the chair of the board. A few months after the departure of Steve Wozniak disillusioned by the situation, Steve Jobs resigns and sells all its shares with the exception of one.

1985-1997: from bad to worse

We could summarize the following years in a bed of roses: management tries to revive sales, but never find the suitable product.Whether the Apple IIc ( "portable" version of the Apple II, 1984), the Mac Plus (1986), the Macintosh SE (successor to the Mac Plus, 1987), the Macintosh II (1987), the surprise Macintosh Portable (1989), the Macintosh Classic (1990), the Macintosh LC branch (1990), the Macintosh PowerBook (1991) or the Apple IIGS (an Apple II in hormones; 1992), none of the - many - attempts Apple does not lead to commercial success. In 1991, the firm is therefore trying a new bet: she Partners with IBM and Motorola to revolutionize the world of computing by leveraging the PowerPC architecture.

Unfortunately, the Power Macintosh series, launched in 1994, is little better than its older and recent clashes with unwavering Intel-Microsoft torque. Meanwhile, Apple's entry on the PDA market fails miserably on an otherwise predictable pitfall. Indeed, Newton (1993) put on entering by handwriting recognition - a technology that, obviously, is still far from mature. Cornered, management takes an important decision in 1995: it will propose its OS licensed to other computer manufacturers, and in order to position Microsoft competitor and get back in the saddle.

Apple Newton
The Apple Newton was to write like a leaf. Alas, the result was never convincing.

In 1996, however, Apple posted dramatic losses and must draw a line under the opportunity for redemption - IBM was interested.It is therefore urgent to find new blood to strengthen the attractiveness of its operating system. Gil Amelio, newly appointed CEO after the ouster of Germany's Michael Spindler (1993-1996), considering long crunching Be Inc. (BeOS), but eventually acquire its competitor NeXT, which happens to be the company founded by Steve Jobs after his departure. This allows the founder to make his return through the back door and approaching quickly from the management team assuming the role of advisor. Since 1997, Amelio was ejected in turn under poor results. Jobs offers "modest" his services as interim CEO. The Board accepts.

1997-2011: Jobs finally at the helm

Upon taking power, the man goes to work and makes all changes that seem coherent him. He ends the licensing program for the operating system house, opens an online store based on NeXT technology eliminates certain catalog products and a surprising announcement with Microsoft. It will inject $ 150 million and will for at least 5 years its popular Office suite on Mac. For Apple troops, the news is a shock - they grow for 10 years a fierce rivalry with Microsoft. Steve Jobs nevertheless manages to appease explaining that it is time to open my arms to all those who can help the recovery of the firm. In terms of products, the first good shot is launching the first iMac or iMac G3 in 1998. far from the austere look of its predecessors, this one sports a friendly and colorful design, which earned him a relative popularity among the general public. Subsequently, emphasis is also placed on the design for the 4th generation PowerPC, published in 1999, and for the new range of laptops iBook (1999). With sales rising again, Apple confirms its new design direction. 

iMac G3
The iMac G3, aka the first computer to move away from shells in gray or beige opaque. 

In 2000, the firm is unveiling the first public beta of its new operating system, Mac OS X, that will actually be launched in 2001. It continues its momentum by presenting a new music consumption platform, iTunes, which a few months before the introduction of a small portable player iPod meets the sweet name. The new product line meets an instant hit and the machine turns to cash in 2003, when iTunes hosts the iTunes Music Store. Meanwhile, Apple is already the third generation iPod, but has not yet unveiled the iPod Mini, Nano, Shuffle or Touch - a proliferation of references that will serve him include incentives for renewal.

IPod Shuffle Touch 2001
Before, the iPod would be the smallest possible ... But that was before (iPod "original" iPod Shuffle, iPod Touch, 2015).

In parallel, the iMac (G3, G4 and G5 in 2002 and in 2004) did not fare too badly and are careful to renew their look in every generation. They fail, however, to go scrounge market share beyond the almost immutable Apple niche. In 2005, Steve Jobs is therefore trying to take a turn: he announced the adoption (late) Intel processors. From 2006, the new iMac and the new MacBook Pro are equipped. This does not change, however, the balance of forces. Windows XP machines that rely on its services remain totally out of reach But Steve Jobs stroke of genius, you all know, this is the iPhone launch. In early 2007, when smartphones already exist but they struggle to seduce , Apple CEO has a 3.5-inch device that does not carry a 3G modem, no GPS and does not support MMS. This one, however, met with some success and literally explode the market with the arrival of the 3G version, which does not fail to correct the situation. Admittedly, it introduces an important element: iOS 2.0 and its application store (App Store). This marks the beginning of the era of phones to truly scalable functions ... and the beginning of the new and irresistible rise of Apple.

In 2010, the firm is back this time by attacking the tablet market. His champion? The iPad, moved by iOS and also that, like almost all other product families home, evolve every year (iPad 2, New iPad, iPad Mini (x4), iPad Air (x2), iPad Pro , iPad Pro 9.7). Again, the goal pursued by Apple is both to maintain its premium positioning and an opportunity for renewal. This strategy, however, does not bear its fruits so neatly with the iPod. Barely four years after his arrival on the market, Apple already recorded a sharp decline in its activity - an evil that will only affirm thereafter.

IPad 2010

In 2011, it's the end of the adventure for Steve Jobs. long struggling against cancer, he first takes an indefinite leave before officially pass the baton to Tim Cook. He died less than two months after the announcement.

2011-2016: the iPhone into ultimate weapon

Subsequently, the current amateur high-tech  know it only too well. While the iPad runs out of steam, that the iPod is collapsing and that Macs continue to occupy their niche quietly, the iPhone feels grow wings and allows Apple to become the second largest smartphone maker in the world Samsung behind his best enemy. Under the direction of Tim Cook, the machine goes beyond the sacrosanct perfect diagonal 4 inches - according to Jobs - and even allows himself to go tickle the famous "PHABLET" by declining to 5.5 inches . In parallel, the company signed its entry into two new markets: it tries to hook the car watches connected with the Watch , which is neither better nor worse than the competition, and bought Beats, a leading manufacturer of headphones.the dynamics of his livelihood, however, tends to worry. The iPhone can he still attract more users? For the first time since the launch of its goose that lays golden eggs, Apple has scheduled a slowdown in its activity for the year beginning in 2016 . It will not be too much concern for its accounts, but it is fun to observe the reaction of the firm: it unveiled the iPhone OS , which, more than two years after the iPhone 5s, marks the return of the vehicle to a 4-inch diagonal. A logical response to the market demand? Probably ... Unless either is an attempt to reconnect with the spirit instilled by Steve Jobs. 

IPhone OS

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